February 12, 2010

Num 1-2: Introduction to Numbers

Posted in Outline tagged , , , , at 8:58 pm by Steve

PURPOSES OF THE BOOK OF NUMBERS

  • A. To fill-in the historical period from the Exodus and Sinai revelation to the preparations in Moab to enter the Promised Land
  • B.  To explain that the 38 year period in the wilderness was a consequence for the unbelief of the older generation (Dt 1:35ff)
  • C.  To demonstrate God’s faithfulness and forbearance against the backdrop of Israel’s unfaithfulness, rebellion, apostasy and frustration
  • D.  To present laws as case studies which do not have a precedent in what has been spoken thus far.
  • E.  To narrate the preparation of Israel for entry into the Promise Land by describing the journey from Sinai to the region beyond Jordan, and the legal decisions made in the wilderness

 

Hill and Walton offer the following timetable for events after the Exodus:

Exodus from Egypt 15th day of 1st month Exod. 12:2, 5; Num. 33:3
Arrival at Mount Sinai 1st day of 3d month Exod. 19:1
Yahweh reveals himself at Sinai 3d day of 3d month Exod. 19:16
Completion of tabernacle 1st day of 1st month of 2d year Exod. 40:1, 16
Command to number Israel 1st day of 2d month of 2d year Num. 1:1
Departure from Sinai 20th day of 2d month of 2d year Num. 10:11
Arrival at Kadesh 1st month of 40th year? Num. 20:1
Death of Miriam 1st month of 40th year? Num. 20:1
Death of Aaron and thirty days of mourning 1st day of 5th month of 40th year Num. 20:29
Departure for Moab 1st day of 6th month of 40th year? Num 20:22; 21:4
Moses Addresses Israel in Moab 1st day of 11th month of 40th year Deut. 1:2-3
Death of Moses and thirty days of mourning         ? Deut. 34:8
Joshua and Israel enter Canaan 10th day of 1st month of 41st year Josh. 1:19

Two censuses are taken in Numbers (1; 26)

  • 1. The first census was taken in the second month of the second year after the Exodus (Num 1:1) numbering the first generation of post-Exodus Israelites
  • 2. The second census was taken in the fortieth year after the Exodus numbering the second generation of post-Exodus Israelites (Num 20:1, 22-29; 33:38)
  • 3. Both census were taken of Israelite men who were of fighting age (twenty years of age and older)  Num 1:1-4; 26:1-4.

Census Figures in Numbers 1 and 26

Tribe Reference Figures Reference Figures
Reuben 1:20-21 46,500 26:5-11 43,730
Simeon 1:22-23 59,300 26:12-14 22,200
Gad 1:24-25 45,650 26:15-18 40,500
Judah 1:26-27 74,600 26:19-22 76,500
Issachar 1:28-29 54,400 26:23-25 64,300
Zebulun 1:30-31 57,400 26:26-27 60,500
Ephraim 1:32-33 40,500 26:35-37 32,500
Manasseh 1:34-35 32,200 26:28-34 52,700
Benjamin 1:36-37 35,400 26:38-41 45,600
Dan 1:38-39 62,700 36:42-43 64,400
Asher 1:40-41 41,500 36:44-47 53,400
Naphatali 1:42-43 53,400 26:48-50 45,400
Totals   603,550   601,730
Average   50,296   50,144
High   74,600   76,500
Low   32,200   22,200
  Greatest increase:  Manasseh (20,500)
  Greatest decrease:  Simeon (37,100)
             

Significance of the Numbers in the Census

  • 1. If one understands the numbers to be literal and the men to represent about one-fourth of the population, then the number of the Israelites ranges from two to three million people
  • 2. A literal understanding of the numbers in the census is in congruence with Pharaoh’s fear of the rapidly increasing Hebrews overrunning Egypt (Ex 1:7-12), the promises made to Abraham about becoming a great nation (Gen 12:2; 17:5-6), the earlier census taken during the first year in the wilderness (Exod 30:12–16; 38:26), and other traditions about the numbers of adult males who left Egypt (Ex 12:37; Num 11:21)
  • C. Some argue that the numbers cannot be literal for the following reasons:
  • 1. The Sinai wilderness did not have the ability to sustain such a large number of people and animals
  • 2. Israel was unable to subdue and displace the Canaanites

Exodus to Numbers

  • Egypt (Ex 1–13),
  • Sinai (Ex 19–Num 10),
  • Kadesh (Num 13-20),
  • Plains of Moab (Num 22-36)

Journeys

Red Seat to Sinai Sinai to Kadesh Kadesh to Moab
Led by cloud Ex 13:21 = Nu 10:11ff  
Victory over Egypt  14   cf. 21:21-35
Victory song 15:1-18  cf 10:35f     21:14-15
Miriam  15:20-21 = 12 = 20:1
People complain 15:23-24 = 11:1 = 21:5
Moses’ intercession 15:25 = 11:2 = 21:7
Well  15:27   = 21:16
Mana and quails 16 = 11:4-5   
Water from rock 17:1-7   = 20:2-13
Victory over Amalek 17:8-16   cf. 21:1-3
Jethro 18:1-12 cf. 10:29-32  

 

Stops

Topic Sinai Kadesh

Moab

Divine promises Ex 19:5-6; 23:23ff. Nu 12:2 22:24
40 days 24:28 13:25  —
Rebellion 32:1-8 14:1ff 25:1-3
Moses’ intercession 32:11-13 14:13-19   —
Judgment 32:34 14:20-35 25:4
Plague 32:35 14:37 25:8-9
Law of sacrifice 34:18ff; Lv. 1-7 etc. 15:1-31 28-29
Trial Lv.24:10-23 15:32-36 27:1-11
Rebellion against Priests Lv. 10:1-3 16:1-35   —
Atonement through priests and Levites Ex 32:26-29 16:36-50 25:7-13
Priestly prerogatives Lv. 6-7; 22 17-18 31:28-30; 35:1-8
Impurity rules Lv. 11-16; Nu.9:6-14 19 31:35-9ff.
Census Nu. 1-4   — 26
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February 6, 2010

Exodus Overview

Posted in Outline tagged , , at 3:09 am by Steve

The name “Exodus” is from the Greek word meaning “way out” or “departure.” Thus, it is the story of Israel’s “going out” of Egyptian bondage.

 1.           From Joseph to Moses (Exodus 1)

a)      What did the Lord prophesy to Abram? (Genesis 15:7-21, esp. vv. 13-14) your descendants will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs … slavesoppressed for four hundred years; but I will bring judgment on the nation which they serve … they shall come out with great possessions.

b)      What happened to the descendents of Jacob in Egypt? (Exodus 1:7-22) They multiplied in number and made slaves because a new Pharaoh did not know of Joseph.  Pharaoh wanted the male children killed at birth (compare to Herod, China), then he told the midwives to drown the boys in waterWater = major theme.

c)      AllegoryEgypt is to Israel, as what is to what? Pharaoh=Satan, Egypt=sin, Israel=us.  Egypt separates Israel from God.  Israel forgets who they are and who God is.  God is going to take Israel out of Egypt, and Egypt out of Israel.

2.           Moses (Exodus 2-4)

a)      Why learn about Moses? Summary in Acts 7:17-45.  He prophesied and prefigured Christ:  Deut 18:15; Luke 24:27,44; John 1:45; 3:14; 5:46; 6:32; Acts 3:13-26; 7:37

b)      Birth and life in Egypt (Exodus 2)

1.      What was supposed to happen to Moses at birth? He should have been drowned.

2.      How did Moses survive? His mother hid him for three months, then put him in a basket (“ark”) in the river.  Pharaoh’s daughter saw him and adopted him.  His own mother was chosen as his paid nurse!

3.      What does his name mean? “Drawn out”

4.      How did he grow up? Nursed by his mother (knowing his culture) and then he lived as an Egyptian until he was 40. (Acts 7:20-22)

5.      What did he do that lost him the favor of Pharaoh? He slew an Egyptian that was beating a Hebrew.  The next day he saw two Hebrews fighting, and one asked “Who made you a prince and a judge over us”, a prophetic question.  Pharaoh finds out about the murder and Moses flees.

c)      Exile and Mission (Exodus 3-4) Moses spends next 40 years in the wilderness.  He is like Joseph, sent ahead of Israel for their good. 

1.      How is Exodus 3:2-10 similar to Genesis 15:13-21?

1.      How did God manifest Himself to Moses? Mysterious fire (flaming torch, burning bush)

2.      What does God say about Israel’s condition? They will be enslaved but He will liberate them

3.      Which covenant-promise to Abraham does God say He will fulfill? Land

2.      What does Moses say the people will ask, and what does God reveal? What is His name?  “YHWH”, “I AM WHO AM”

3.      For what purpose is God freeing the Israelites? So that they can offer sacrifice (render worship) to Him

4.      What will happen when Egypt lets Israel go? They will despoil the Egyptians

5.      How does Moses complain, and how does God respond?

1.      First time (Exodus 4:1-9) They won’t believe me or listen to me – God gives him signs to perform

2.      Second time (Exodus 4:10-12) I’m not a good speaker – God will give him the words

3.      Third time (Exodus 4:13-17) Send someone else – God will send Aaron, Moses’ brother, with him

6.      What is God’s message to Pharaoh? (Exodus 4:21-23) Let My firstborn (Israel) free to serve Me, or I will slay your firstborn.  (The other nations are God’s “other” children.)  God sends Aaron to meet Moses.  Moses and Aaron return to Egypt and speak to the elders of Israel, showing them the signs God had given him.

3.           The 10 Plagues (Exodus 5-13)

a)      Moses and Aaron meet Pharaoh (Exodus 5-6) Moses’ last 40 years are spent taking Israel out of Egypt

1.      What does God want of the Israelites? He wants the Israelites to take a three-days journey into the desert to serve Him (via sacrifice).

2.      What does Pharaoh want of them? He wants the Israelites to stay and serve him (via slave labor).

3.      What is Pharaoh’s reaction to Moses’ request? He makes the work harder for the Israelites, not supplying them with straw and expecting the same output of bricks.  The Israelites are angry with Moses and Aaron.

4.      How does Moses respond? He complains to God that since he came to Egypt Pharaoh has made it worse for the Israelites, and He has not saved them yet.

5.      What does God say He will do? (Exodus 6:6-8) I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment, and I will take you for my people, and I will be your God … And I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; I will give it to you for a possession. I am the LORD.

b)      The First Nine Plagues (Exodus 7-10) Moses has Aaron throw his staff to the ground and it becomes a snake.  Pharaoh’s magicians can do the same thing, but Aaron’s staff consumes theirs.  God proclaims judgments on Egypt’s gods.

1.      What is the first plague? (Exodus 7:19-22) Nile turns to blood, copied by the magicians

2.      What is the second plague? (Exodus 8:1-3) Frogs overrun the land, copied by the magicians

1.      What does Pharaoh promise?  Does he keep his promise? He will let the Israelites go to sacrifice if Moses removes the frogs; no.

3.      What is the third plague? (Exodus 8:12-15) Gnats from the dirt

1.      How is this plague different from the previous ones? Pharaoh’s magicians can’t copy it

4.      What is the fourth plague? (Exodus 8:16-19) Swarms of flies

1.      What happened to the Israelites? No flies for them

2.      What is the compromise Pharaoh offers? Sacrifice to God here, but it would be an abomination (because of the animals which would be sacrificed)

3.      What does Pharaoh promise?  Does he keep his promise? Sacrifice but not too far away; no.

5.      What is the fifth plague? (Exodus 9:6-7) Cattle dying

1.      What happened to the Israelites? Their cattle didn’t die

6.      What is the sixth plague? (Exodus 9:10-11) Boils

7.      What is the seventh plague? (Exodus 9:22-26) Hailstorms

1.      What happened to the Israelites? No hail

2.      What does Pharaoh promise?  Does he keep his promise? Stop the hail and I’ll let you go; no.

8.      What is the eighth plague? (Exodus 10:12-15) Locusts

9.      What is the ninth plague? (Exodus 10:21-23) Darkness

1.      What happened to the Israelites? No darkness.

2.      What is the compromise Pharaoh offers? Go worship God but don’t bring animals.

3.      What does Pharaoh threaten Moses with? Death

c)      Passover and the 10th Plague (Exodus 11-12)

1.      Remember God’s words in Exodus 3:21-22 vs. Exodus 11:2-3. Israel will leave Egypt with plenty of possessions.

2.      How does God respond to Pharaoh’s threat? (Exodus 11:4-7) He will take the life of the firstborn of Egypt.

3.      What is the Passover ritual? (Exodus 12:1-11) Get a lamb on the 10th of the 1st month (Nisan), inspect it until the 14th, then kill it and mark the doorposts with its blood, then roast it and eat it with unleavened bread.

4.      Why is it called Passover (Pesach / Pascha)? (Exodus 12:12-13, 26-27) God would pass over where the blood of the Lamb is on the doorposts.  Israel would also be passing through the Red Sea, and passing over the Jordan into the land promised to them.

5.      What happened through Egypt? (Exodus 12:29-30) All the first-born of the Egyptians died, from the lowest slave all the way up to Pharaoh.

6.      Is this the lamb of God? (Exodus 12:3) No, each family has its own lamb

4.           Links between the Passover and Christ

a)      Get the lamb on 10 Nisan – Christ enters Jerusalem on Palm Sunday

b)      Lamb is inspected until 14 Nisan – Christ is “inspected” by the Pharisees and everyone; Pilate says he finds no fault in him (John 18:38)

c)      Not a bone is to be broken (Ex 12:46; John 19:36)

d)      The Eucharist is the new Passover sacrificial meal

1.      “Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed” (1 Cor 5:7)

2.      “You know that you were ransomed … with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot” (1 Pet 1:18-19)

3.      “I saw a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain” (Rev 5:6)

4.      “The marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready … Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb” (Rev 19:7-9)

February 5, 2010

Leviticus Overview

Posted in Outline tagged , , at 2:56 am by Steve

Outline of Leviticus

1. Laws of Sacrifices – chapters 1 – 7

a. The Burnt Offering – chapter 1
b. The Grain Offering – chapter 2
c. The Peace Offering – chapter 3
d. The Sin Offering – chapter 4
e. The Trespass Offering – 5:1 – 6:7
f. Laws of Offerings – 6:8 – 7:38

2. The Consecration of the Priests – chapters 8 – 10

a. The Consecration of Aaron & His Sons as Priests – chapter 8
b. Aaron & His Sons Minister as Priests – chapter 9
c. Unholiness of Priests Punished & Forbidden – chapter 10

3. Laws of Clean & Unclean – chapters 11-15

a. Clean & Unclean Animals – chapter 11
b. Purification of a Woman after Childbirth – chapter 12
c. Laws of Leprosy – chapters 13 – 14
d. Laws of Bodily Discharges – chapter 15

4. The Day of Atonement – chapter 16

5. The Sanctity of Blood – chapter 17

6. Holy Conduct – chapters 18 – 20

a. Holy Conduct Commanded – chapters 18 – 19
b. Punishment for Unholy Conduct – chapter 20

7. Holiness of the Priests – chapters 21 – 22

a. Holy Priests – 21:1 – 22:16
b. Holy Sacrifices – 22:17-33

8. Holy Convocations – chapters 23 – 25

a. The Holy Convocations – chapter 23

(1) The Sabbath – verses 1-3
(2) The Passover – verses 4-8
(3) Feast of the Firstfruits – verses 9-14
(4) The Feast of Weeks – verses 15-22
(5) The Feast of Trumpets – verses 23-25
(6) The Day of Atonement – verses 26-32
(7) The Feast of Tabernacles – verses 33-44

b. Holy Things for the Tabernacle – 24:1-9

(1) Holy Oil & Lamps – verses 1-4
(2) Holy Bread – verses 5-9

c. The Holiness of God’s Name & of His Laws – 24:10-23
d. Holy Years – chapter 25

(1) Sabbath of the Seventh Year – verses 1-7
(2) the Year of the Jubilee – verses 8-55

9. Blessings & Cursings – chapter 26

10. Vows – chapter 27